Saturday, December 19, 2015

#97 The Retina

In doing research for my next proof for God, I came across a quote that blew me away. I had never heard any detail like this about the retina of your eye, even though I had already written one Proof for God about the Eye (#45) [a]

As you know, the retina of your eye is the part that allows you to be able to see this page or anything else. It is full of nerve cells that convert light into electrical and chemical signals that are sent to the brain down the optic nerve.

Your retina is thinner than Saran Wrap, by the way.

I find what it does really hard to imagine. Here is the quote:

"To simulate 10 milliseconds of the complete processing of even a single nerve cell from the retina would require the solution of about 500 simultaneous non-linear differential equations one hundred times and would take at least several minutes of processing time on a Cray supercomputer. Keeping in mind there are 10 million or more such cells interacting with each other in complex ways, it would take a minimum of a hundred years of Cray time to simulate what takes place in your eye many times every second." [b]

You could quibble and say that this is an old quote, which it is, from about 1985. But even given that computers are a lot faster now, it would still take a super computer (like big in size and needing lots of power) to do what your tiny little retina is doing every second, in each eye of course.

Researchers at UC Berkeley discovered that our retinas form a stack of 10 to 12 different image representations of what we view by using "cross-talk" between different layers of cells in the retina. The images are not very good quality. But they are all sent to the brain and the brain assembles them into the wonderful images we experience. [c]

No person in their right mind who knows what a computer chip is would ever proclaim that it could have evolved. Yet some very sane people refuse to see that there was any super intelligence behind the formation of a retina that is vastly superior to any computer chip. And retinas have been around for millions of years.

“The retinal rods and cones are composed of various layers. The human rods have a dynamic range of about 10 billion-to-one. In other words, when fine-tuned for high gain amplification (as when you are out on a dark night and there is only starlight), your photoreceptors can pick up a single photon. Phenomenal sensitivity! Of course the retina does a number of processing tricks on that just to make sure it is not picking up noise, so you don't see static; it really wants at least six receptors in the same area to pick up the same signal before it "believes" that it is true and sends it to the brain. In bright daylight the retina bleaches out and the volume control turns way down for, again, admirable performance.” [d]

Take note that your retina can pick up a single photon of light. That’s how sensitive it is. But just to be sure there are no mistaken electrical impulses sent to the brain, the retina makes sure by checking around and only sending a signal if six photoreceptors all pick up the same thing.

A retina that sensitive if exposed to sunlight would get totally bleached out and you wouldn’t be able to see anything. However, your retina is able to adjust to major changes in the amount of light. Imagine how that could possibly evolve. And remember, all this ability is contained in something thinner than Saran Wrap. Note also that the retina is transparent (you can see right through it).

That’s just the tip of the iceberg. Just about everything about your retina is a profound miracle.

Think some more about a computer chip when compared to your retina. Remember that the computer chip was absolutely designed by some very smart people. The retina only occupies 0.0003 cubic inches of space and the power consumption of the retina is about 0.001 watts. The retina has a resolution of about 10,000 by 10,000 pixels. It has about 25 billion equivalent "gates" in it that are like the transistors in a computer chip.

Other parts of the retina are equally miraculous. There are three layers of cells on the back of the retina: the Retinal Pigment Epithelium, the choroid, and the sclera. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium is a multifunctional and indispensable structure. The RPE is a single-cell-thick tissue layer consisting of relatively uniform polygonal-shaped cells. These cells touch the extremities of the rods and the cones (the photoreceptors) with dense microvilli and basal membrane infoldings.

Posterior to the RPE is the vascular choroid layer which is filled with blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrition, and remove waste.

“The structure of the choroid is generally divided into four layers (classified in order of furthest away from the retina to closest):

1. Haller's layer - outermost layer of the choroid consisting of larger diameter blood vessels.
2. Sattler's layer - layer of medium diameter blood vessels.
3. Choriocapillaris - layer of capillaries.
4. Bruch's membrane - innermost layer of the choroid.” [e]

So your retina has small blood vessels, medium sized, and also larger blood vessels. These are all necessary for the correct functioning of the eye. It’s incomprehensible that this emerged by evolution in a slow and gradual process. The fossil record constantly shows only animals that have fully formed eyes.

Posterior to that is another layer of connective tissue known as the sclera.

Evolutionists like Richard Dawkins, Kenneth Miller, Daniel Dennett, and others have claimed that Evolution is proved because the retina of the eye is backwards. They say this is a “poor design” because the rods and cones are facing away from the direction where light comes from. The retina was even called “functionally stupid”. Their “proof” is that they know better how the retina should be correctly designed and we would have better vision if our eyes were like squid eyes. Since it’s a “poor design”, it must have evolved because they know if there were a God, He would not have done it that way. He would have done it their way.

A “flawed design” is their evidence against a creator God and an argument for a random process of mutation.

So, what if scientists, upon further research, can prove it is not a flawed design but actually the best possible engineering? Could we then proclaim that there is a God? Would the atheists be forced to change their minds?

Well, as it turns out many researchers have discovered that the design of the retina is actually the best design and that there is no evidence that the Evolutionists’ idea of the “best” design would even work at all.

I’m not going to spend a lot more time on this, but I want to point you to a fantastic technical paper that goes into all the details of why the design we have is perfect. If you are interested, read the article: “Why the Inverted Human Retina Is a Superior Design” by Jerry Bergman and Joseph Calkins. [f]

Here is a short list of some of the reasons why the design of our human retina is actually the best design and was clearly designed by an all knowing intelligence.

1. Rods and Cones need a lot of blood. Rods and cones require a greater blood supply than any other bodily tissue. They require close contact with blood in order to receive oxygen and nutrients. Waste products need to be carried away. Vision actually happens because chemical reactions are taking place and sending signals to the brain. Heat is being generated that needs to be cooled by the blood. Photopigments constantly have to be replaced and recycled. Rods and cones (photoreceptors) get used up and have to replace themselves about every 7 days or so. [g]

2. Best location of blood supply. If the retina were designed in the opposite way, where would the blood supply be? You can’t put it in front of the rods and cones. If you put it along the sides, it would take up too much space and reduce the number of rods and cones. That would cause poorer vision.

3. Need opaque layer to absorb excess light. The rods and cones need to be close to a dark surface to absorb stray light. Otherwise, reflecting light would distort our vision. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium provides that dark surface.

4.  Retinal Pigment Epithelium needed. This layer of cells produces critical enzymes for vision. It also stores Vitamin A for regeneration. The RPE also helps maintain water and ion flow between the neural retina and the choroid, protects against free radical damage, and regulates retinoid metabolism. It is also a barrier to protect the inner parts of the eye.

5. Retina should not be more sensitive than it is. As I mentioned above, the retina can recognize a single photon of light. You cannot get any better than that. Our retina works better than any other design. If there were somehow greater sensitivity, you might see “too much” and get blinded. It might be helpful at night, but not at all during the day. It would cause more eye damage too. Why do you think people wear sunglasses?

6. Müller cells. Recent research has discovered Müller cells in the retina. They are actually like funnels that help carry the light through the retina so it is less distorted. They have the perfect index of refraction to transmit the light with minimum loss and distortion. It’s like God invented fiber optic cables thousands of years ago. How about that for design?

7. Light does not get blocked. Amazingly, very little light is actually blocked by the part of the retina the light encounters first. This is the transparent layer of many nerve cells leading to the optic nerve and then the brain. Normal nerve cells are covered with a substance called myelin. But the nerve cells in the retina do not have this covering which would have blocked some of the light. Also the larger blood vessels and nerves inside the eye travel around but not over the area where your focused vision takes place. What a good design.

8. Waste must be carried away. There are waste products from the chemical reactions as well as the dying rods and cones. If the rods and cones faced the front, all the garbage would accumulate inside your eye. The result of that is obvious.

9. Fast recycle time. You know if you drive at night and look into the oncoming headlights you are temporarily blinded. The close blood supply allows a relatively fast recycle time. If your rods and cones faced the other way, you’d be temporarily blinded much longer.

10. Color and much greater detail than squid eyes. Research on squid eyes shows they can perceive shape, light intensity, and texture, but any details are seriously lacking. Squid have only 20 million receptor cells in their retina, whereas humans have 126 million. Squid have only rods, whereas humans have rods and three types of cones, allowing us to see the whole color spectrum. [h]

11. Momentary shadows are a good thing. It turns out that the light having to pass through various cells before getting to the rods and cones is a good thing. Constant light would bleach out the rods and cones, but the momentary darkness gives them a break and allows them to regenerate. Think again about sun glasses.

So we can now conclude that there is no “poor design” here at all. In fact, the design is so magnificent it is beyond our understanding.

There must be God.
[a] Stephens, James, Proof for God #45 The EYE,

[b] Stevens, John K., Associate Professor of physiology and biomedical engineering, “Reverse Engineering the Brain,” Byte, April 1985, p. 287.

[c] Sanders, Robert, Media Relations, UC Berkeley, March 2001, "Eye strips images of all but bare essentials before sending visual information to brain",

[d] Calkins, Joseph, “Design in the Human Eye”,

[e] Wikipedia, "Choroid",

[f] Bergman, Jerry and Calkins, Joseph, Creation Research Society Quarterly, "Why the Inverted Human Retina Is a Superior Design",

[g] Bergman, Jerry and Calkins, Joseph, Creation Research Society Quarterly, "Why the Inverted Human Retina Is a Superior Design",

[h] Bergman, Jerry and Calkins, Joseph, Creation Research Society Quarterly, "Why the Inverted Human Retina Is a Superior Design",

Sunday, November 22, 2015

#96 Blood

I have been reading numerous scientific articles about blood. This information is astounding. There is only one rational conclusion, your body is a walking miracle.

I recommend that those who believe that random chance and "survival of the fittest" can result in such a miracle need to take a step back and examine their motivations. They might ask themselves honestly why they want so badly that evolution be true.

The best current estimate of scientists is that there are 37.2 trillion cells in your body, not counting all the microbes. [1] Inside each and every one of those cells there are approximately 10 million chemical reactions taking place every second of your life. [2] Every chemical reaction requires oxygen and fuel, and then removal of any waste. Let’s thank God for our blood, otherwise every cell that does not come in contact with it would die.

And just how does blood get near enough to every cell. It travels through an incredible network of capillaries. Capillaries are so thin that about 40 of them equals the width of a human hair. If you lined up all the capillaries in your body, it would reach 60,000 miles, ¼ of the way to the Moon. [3]

If you believe that life developed slowly and gradually over many generations, which came first blood or capillaries. If blood developed first, was it just sitting there in a pool? If capillaries developed first, what was their purpose if there was no blood to circulate?

The story of blood is phenomenal. About two weeks after a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote has gotten so big that the growing number of cells cannot survive. They need a transport system to get oxygen and nutrients. Perfectly on time, some of the developing cells form into tubes that start pumping. (See Proof for God #79 The Heart) Simultaneously, capillaries start forming as well as blood.

Red Blood Cells start forming in a temporary “blood forming sac” that grows on the outside of the embryo. By the middle of month two, RBC production will now be taken over by the fetal liver and spleen. By month number five, RBC production is now taking place in the bone marrow of the fetal upper legs and shins. It continues to be made there in children, but eventually it moves again. In adults, most RBCs are produced in the bone marrow of the pelvis, cranium, vertebrae, and sternum.

The fine-tuning of this whole process screams out that it was intelligently designed. Even the few things that I have pointed out so far could not have developed in a slow and linear process over many generations. The organism would never survive.

And this is just the beginning.

Men on average have about a gallon and a half of blood and women a little over a gallon. It is about 45 percent blood cells (nearly half) and 55 percent plasma. Blood makes up about 7 to 8 percent of your weight. [4]

“The liquid component of blood is called plasma, a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, and salts. The main job of the plasma is to transport blood cells throughout your body along with nutrients, waste products, antibodies, clotting proteins, chemical messengers such as hormones, and proteins that help maintain the body's fluid balance.” [5]

If you think that is complicated, we are just scratching the surface. But stop and think how a slow and gradual process based on mutation and natural selection over many generations could produce all of those absolutely essential functions of blood one by one and not have the organism die off somewhere along the way, probably at the very beginning. There are too many limiting factors that kill a cell if all those processes are not in place from the beginning. These are mind-boggling chemical reactions. For just a taste, read Proof for God #74 Proteins.

Now we’ll start to get extremely complicated. There are three more basic components in blood that I want to discuss briefly (if possible).

1. Red Blood Cells (also called erythrocytes or RBCs) which carry oxygen to the tissues.
2. White Blood Cells (also called leukocytes) which fight infections.
3. Platelets (also called thrombocytes), smaller cells that help blood to clot. [6]

Red Blood Cells

RBCs are produced in bone marrow and develop from a generic type of cell (pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells) that could also have become a White Blood Cell or even Platelets. It is very difficult to imagine how complicated this is. There are sensors in the body that turn on or off switches that control how much of each type of cell is made. There is a hormone (called erythropoietin) which comes primarily from the kidneys and that is what controls the production of Red Blood Cells. Think about that. A hormone from the kidneys controls production of RBCs in the bone marrow. How many generations does it take to “evolve” that process?

RBCs are really, really unique. They have no nucleus because the cell loses it during growth along with other organelles. [7] They are shaped somewhat like a donut which just happens to be the best design of surface area for absorbing a full load of oxygen in a fraction of a second. They are made from five very specialized proteins that are very flexible. This is vitally important because they are about twice as big as a capillary and need to bend nearly in half to travel down the capillary and then spring back into shape on their way back to the heart.

RBCs are loaded with a protein called hemoglobin that is a fantastic carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide. There are 250 million hemoglobin molecules in each of your billions of RBCs. [8]

Your body makes about 2 million RBCs every second to replace those that die off. [9] In men, there are an average of 5,200,000 RBCs per cubic millimeter and in women there are an average of 4,600,000 RBCs per cubic millimeter. The ratio of cells in normal blood is 600 RBCs to 1 White Blood Cell and 40 platelets.

Amazingly, RBCs do not eat up any of the oxygen themselves as they carry it out to all your cells. Special enzymes provide the power they need. This is another process that precludes evolution and necessitates a master designer.

Thankfully, the RBCs also remove Carbon Dioxide from our cells. The RBCs carry a certain enzyme (called carbonic anhydrase) which processes most of the CO2 (70%) and takes it back to the lungs for elimination. [10] That sure looks like a designed plan also. Enzymes don’t form by accident and even if they did, you would still have to get the exact right one in the right place.

White Blood Cells

These are the amazing cells that circulate throughout our bodies to fight disease. They are made in the bone marrow from the same original cells as the Red Blood Cells. WBCs come in the following six main types, with their average percentages:

• Neutrophils - 58 percent. Have faintly blue-pink granules with digestive enzymes to eat bacteria.
• Eosinophils - 2 percent. Have orange-red granules. They kill parasites and have a role in allergic reactions..
• Basophils - 1 percent. Have purple granules. They are not well understood, but they release histamine.
• Bands - 3 percent. These are immature Neutrophils.
• Monocytes - 4 percent. They kill bacteria and also destroy old, damaged and dead cells in the body.
• Lymphocytes - 4 percent.

“Neutrophils and monocytes use several mechanisms to get to and kill invading organisms. They can squeeze through openings in blood vessels by a process called diapedesis. They move around using ameboid motion. They are attracted to certain chemicals produced by the immune system or by bacteria and migrate toward areas of higher concentrations of these chemicals. This is called chemotaxis. They kill bacteria by a process called phagocytosis, in which they completely surround the bacteria and digest them with digestive enzymes.” [11]

Our disease fighting immune system is phenomenal, to say the least. The smartest scientists can't come close to copying it, let alone making a better one. 

When the WBCs release the granules into the blood stream to fight disease, they last for about 4 to 8 hours before being absorbed into body tissues and sticking around another 4 or 5 days. What an amazing system for fighting disease for you. How can anyone conceptualize how this could have evolved?


When you cut yourself, your blood will clot and form a scab. Did you ever ask yourself why your blood does not clot inside your body and turn you into a statue? The smooth inner surface of the blood vessels and a finely tuned balance of chemicals or “clotting factors” keeps that from happening. [12] Evolutionists must believe that we are really lucky that blood clotting worked perfectly the very first time. Otherwise we would have bled out completely on the ground or else frozen solid from internal clotting.

“…platelets are not actually cells but rather small fragments of cells. Platelets help the blood clotting process (or coagulation) by gathering at the site of an injury, sticking to the lining of the injured blood vessel, and forming a platform on which blood coagulation can occur. This results in the formation of a fibrin clot, which covers the wound and prevents blood from leaking out. Fibrin also forms the initial scaffolding upon which new tissue forms, thus promoting healing.” [13]

The number of platelets also has to have a controlling chemical process so there is just the right number in your body. Too many platelets and people would be getting strokes and heart attacks. Too few and we’d lose a lot of blood to excessive bleeding. Here again it looks like there must have been a very intelligent designer.

Okay, I’m sure you are getting the idea and are probably tired of reading so I’m going to wrap it up now.

There are different types of Platelets: T-cells and B-cells. The T-cells come in 4 types: (1) Helper T cells, (2) Cytotoxic T cells, (3) Memory T cells, and (4) Suppressor T cells. Each of them has their own unique chemicals and very complex purposes.

And I haven’t even talked about the Plasma, which makes up 55% of your blood.

In conclusion, there must be God.

[1], "There are 37.2 Trillion Cells in Your Body",

[2] Guliuzza, Randy J., "Life-Giving Blood",

[3] Guliuzza, Randy J., "Life-Giving Blood",

[4] American Society of Hematology, "Blood Basics",
(Excellent 52 sec video: )

[5] American Society of Hematology, "Blood Basics",

[6] WebMD article, “Heart Health Center”,

[8] Guliuzza, Randy J., "Life-Giving Blood",

[9] U. S. National Library of Medicine, "Red blood cell production",

[12] WebMD article, “Heart Health Center”,

[13] American Society of Hematology, "Blood Basics",

Saturday, November 14, 2015

#95 Archaea

Probably most of you have never heard of Archaea. I had never heard of them either until just recently. In fact, the world had never heard of them until they were discovered in 1977.

The Archaea constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms. These microbes are prokaryotes, meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells.

Classification is difficult because the majority have not been studied in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment. [1]

Before 1977 they had always been considered a type of bacteria. But then microbiologist Carl Woese was able to recognize that they were very different from bacteria.

"He had stumbled on a brave new world of microbes that looked like bacteria to our eyes, but were in fact so unique biochemically and physically that they have ultimately proved to be more closely related to us than to them. He had stumbled on an entirely new form of life, right here on Earth." [2]

Being a believer in the Theory of Evolution, he concluded that back at the beginning of Darwin’s Tree of Life, there must have been an early split. Bacteria went one way and Archaea and all other life went the other way. Of course Archaea was so primitive, not even having a cell nuclei, it had to have branched off from the Tree of Life itself at the very beginning.

So Woese came up with an all new branch and thus there are now three major branches off of Darwin’s Tree of Life. Evolutionists don’t really give an explanation for whatever it was that came before these three branches.

To get a better idea of some of the differences between Archaea and bacteria, one good website is WiseGeek. Here is just one point of many.

“Archaea and bacteria are both single-celled microorganisms known as prokaryotes but this is one of the few things they have in common. Even though they both look vaguely similar when viewed through a microscope, each represents a completely different group of creatures. In fact, archaea differ from bacteria as much as humans do, in terms of their biochemistry and genetic structure. Archaea and bacteria have different cell membranes and cell structures, and archaea are found in extreme environments where most bacteria could not survive.” [3]

It turns out that Archaea are totally everywhere on the earth. In fact they make up as much as 20% of the biomass of all living things even though they are microscopic in size. “Archaea are particularly numerous in the oceans, and the archaea in plankton may be one of the most abundant groups of organisms on the planet.” [4]

They come in all shapes and sizes. Some are totally different from each other and do the exact opposite thing biochemically. Here is an example.

“Archaea carry out many steps in the nitrogen cycle. This includes both reactions that remove nitrogen from ecosystems (such as nitrate-based respiration and denitrification) as well as processes that introduce nitrogen (such as nitrate assimilation and nitrogen fixation).” [5]

See my Proof for God #48 Nitrogen Cycle for more information on that.

"To our surprise, we have found super-sized filamentous archaea almost big enough to see with the naked eye living on mangrove roots. We have found methanogenic archaea that interact with protozoa in the guts of cows and termites to help these organisms break cellulose down for energy. We've even found an archaeon that lives symbiotically with -- of all things -- a sponge." [6]

Here are four excerpts from Wikipedia that show the extremely important roles that Archaea play in maintaining all life on earth.

“Researchers recently discovered Archaean involvement in ammonia oxidation reactions. These reactions are particularly important in the oceans.

“The archaea also appear crucial for ammonia oxidation in soils. They produce nitrite, which other microbes then oxidize to nitrate. Plants and other organisms consume the latter.

“In the carbon cycle, methanogen archaea remove hydrogen and play an important role in the decay of organic matter by the populations of microorganisms that act as decomposers in anaerobic ecosystems, such as sediments, marshes and sewage-treatment works.

“In the sulfur cycle, archaea that grow by oxidizing sulfur compounds release this element from rocks, making it available to other organisms.” [7]

Some researchers believe that we would never have been able to come to exist on the earth without Archaea. Millions of years ago, the earth was covered with methane gas. They think it was the type of Archaea that digests methane that ate it all up or we could never have come along. Even today some scientists estimate that Archaea convert 300 million tons of methane per year into more life friendly chemicals.

"Scientists have discovered a methane metabolizing Archea in the extreme pressures of deep sea sediments. It is estimated that these bacteria-like organisms consume 300 million tons of methane each year, which prevent the Earth from turning into a furnace. According to Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, a biogeochemist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts and one of the authors of the study, 'If they hadn't been established at some point in Earth's history, we probably wouldn't be here.'" [8]

A tremendous amount is NOT known about Archaea. “Current knowledge on genetic diversity is fragmentary and the total number of archaeal species cannot be estimated with any accuracy. Estimates of the number of phyla range from 18 to 23, of which only 8 have representatives that have been cultured and studied directly.” [9] Here is another such statement. "Consequently, our understanding of the role of archaea in ocean ecology is rudimentary, so their full influence on global biogeochemical cycles remains largely unexplored." [10]

But scientists have been able to learn some things about their internal makeup, replication, and the biochemical processes they exhibit.

Let’s note here that they do not reproduce sexually. There are no male and female so it is hard to apply the Theory of Evolution. They do not have “parents” to give them two different sets of DNA.

So let’s look at some of the questions that Evolutionists are not going to be able to answer.

If you have read any of my Proofs for God such as #40 Chirality, #21 DNA, #27 The Truth about Mutation, or #35 Natural Selection, then you are probably already asking yourself some good questions.

In the very beginning for Evolutionists, somehow DNA came to exist. In the opinion of many scientists, it would be impossible to come into existence without super-intelligence involved because there is so much order, information, and design to DNA. But let’s skip over that discussion for this proof.

Evolutionists were forced to put Archaea and bacteria and the very bottom of the Tree of Life because they are so primitive. But they are so different it is impossible to explain that one was the ancestor of the other, so they don’t. They make separate branches of the tree and leave the beginning a mystery.

"Molecular handedness -- chirality in chemistry-speak -- is not a thing changed easily by evolution. For instance, the vast majority of protein building blocks called amino acids used by life on Earth are exclusively "left-handed". Why? No one really knows, although some have guesses. Once lefty amino acids took over, though, there was no going back biochemically -- the enzymes were set up a certain way and that was that. Thus, that archaeal and bacterial enzymes use glycerols with opposite handedness implies that bacteria and archaea parted ways long, long ago." [11]

To mutate from bacteria to Archaea or any other living thing is impossible to conceive of based on the different handedness of their enzymes. Remember DNA is a long, long chain of millions, if not billions, of individual amino acids.

Evolutionists have to believe that enzymes of both left-handedness and right-handedness somehow developed, once to produce Archaea and the plant/animal branch and another time to produce bacteria. The odds are astronomical against an enzyme coming to exist by Evolution even one time. But two independent times is not even conceivable. And then another miracle has to happen to produce the third branch of the Tree of Life (plants and animals).

We could stop there, but let’s keep going. Once one Archaea somehow exists as a fully functioning cell, it has to already contain all the necessary DNA to be able to replicate itself. (Please read Proof for God #41 The First Living Cell to learn how difficult that is.)

"The majority of its genes related to energy production, cell division, and metabolism were found to be most similar to those found in bacteria, while those related to transcription, translation, and replication were found to be most similar to those found in eukaryota." [12]

Here’s something else. Archaea hold all the records for being able to survive in the most extreme environments like hot, cold, acidic, or salty.

Then from that one very first Archaea, how do you explain such an extreme diversity of Archaea living in every environment on the earth? They are single celled organisms so when they multiply they do not have two parents from which to inherit different DNA. Their DNA somehow makes a copy of itself and then the cell splits into two “daughter cells” having exactly the same DNA.

"Archaea replicate asexually in a process known as binary fission. Archaea achieve a swimming motility via one or more tail-like flagellae." [13]

They just make a copy of themselves according to their existing DNA. I will concede that there might be some mutations during copying, but this is not a process that leads anywhere toward species development. See my Proof for God # Copying Degradation and my Proof for God # The Truth about Mutation.

Mutation is very rarely beneficial. It usually leads to death. There’s no hope there for growth and development of many different phyla.

Archaea live in many such extreme environments that they could not have evolved there. There are Archaea that are living at 130°C on the ocean floor next to an active volcano.

"Strain 121 can survive at temperatures up to 130C and experiments suggest there may be archaeal species that can tolerate temperatures of 140 to 150C. Lest you forget, water boils at 100C." [14]

There is no oxygen there and the heat destroys all other living things. How did they get there in the first place and not get destroyed on the way? How could they adapt to the heat in that environment without being killed first? If the heat didn’t kill them, how did they get oxygen and energy? They would have had to evolve the ability to convert compounds in the environment into oxygen and energy after they arrived there. It’s pretty clear that they had to be able to survive in that environment before they ever got there not after they arrived. Survival of the Fittest is totally out of the realm of possibility.

How about the type of Archaea that can thrive in a totally acidic environment of pH 0 (zero), comparable to sulfuric acid? All plants and animals die in acid. Since Evolutionists put Archaea on the Tree of Life, how do they explain that some type “adapted” into being able to do this? They could not have adapted once they were in the strong acid environment, no survival of the fittest because there are no survivors. Even bacteria which Evolutionists say came earlier on the Tree of Life are killed by acid.

Different types of Archaea also live in extremely alkaline environments. Some can live in extremely cold environments. Others live in the soil, the ocean, marshlands, even sewage. 

There are even Archaea that live in your stomachs that help you digest certain types of molecules. We are really lucky that they are there or we might not survive. That’s a very acidic environment which dissolves almost everything that comes into it. But not your very own Archaea.

“Methogens such as M. Smithii, the most abundant methanogenic archaeon in the human gut is an important player in the digestion of polysaccharides (complex sugars). Methangenic archaea help to remove excess hydrogen.” [15]

Here’s a neat little sentence with gigantic implications. “Like bacteria, archaea cell membranes are usually bounded by a cell wall and they swim using one or more flagella.” [16] How can evolutionists explain one or more working flagellum on an archaea? That means they have a working tail that motors them around. A tail takes a lot of engineering. A half evolved tail does not work. Evolution cannot explain in slow, gradual steps how you get a flagellum.

Archaea are so tiny that we can’t see them and yet there are so many that they make up 20% of living things on the planet. There are so many different kinds of them and they all seem to provide extremely essential chemical processes for our survival. We’d die without them.

There’s still a lot more to be learned about them, but just knowing what we know already makes it impossible to believe that they occurred by random chance or natural selection.

No evolutionary explanation suffices. There must be God.

[1] Wikipedia, “Archaea”,

[2] Frazer, Jennifer, Scientific American, "Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know", January 12, 2013,

[3] WiseGeek, "What Are the Differences between Archaea and Bacteria?",

[4] Wikipedia, “Archaea”,

[5] Frazer, Jennifer, Scientific American, "Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know", January 12, 2013,

[6] Frazer, Jennifer, Scientific American, "Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know", January 12, 2013,

[7] Wikipedia, “Archaea”,

[8] Deem, Rich, "The Incredible Design of the Earth and Our Solar System", 

[9] Wikipedia, “Archaea”,

[10] Wikipedia, “Archaea”,

[11] Frazer, Jennifer, Scientific American, "Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know", January 12, 2013,

[12] New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, "Archaea",

[13] Encyclopedia of Life, "What are Archaea?",

[14] Frazer, Jennifer, Scientific American, "Archaea Are More Wonderful Than You Know", January 12, 2013,

[15] New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, "Archaea",

[16] Wikipedia, “Archaea”,

Saturday, October 24, 2015

#94 Whales

Everybody is familiar with whales and we have all been astounded at how big they are. The Blue Whale can get up to 112 feet long and weigh 200 tons, as much as 33 elephants. [1]

But do you know that whales are mammals? That means that they are warm blooded and they breathe air. Their babies are born alive and are fed milk. There are at least 40 different known species of whales. [2]

So if you are a faithful believer in Evolution, you somehow have to find a way to believe that whales started out on land and not water. You already believe life started out in the ocean and then evolved by emerging onto the land and evolving into mammals.

Somehow those highly evolved mammals ended up going back into the ocean and becoming the largest animals on earth.

Darwin thought it was the bear that evolved into a whale because he saw them swim a lot. Over the years, evolutionists have come up with other mammals that are the ancestor of whales. Their religious faith in evolution requires that some animal evolved into a whale. Even though there is no known ancestor in the fossil record of the whale, evolutionists claim there are lots of relatives along the family tree, and that’s enough proof for them.

Notice on this chart that the space is blank in every case where there should be a direct ancestor to a whale (the pink vertical lines). All the chart shows are species that supposedly branched off from the main line that leads to whales. If we have fossils of all the animals shown, why is there not one single fossil in the direct ancestral line to the whale? [3]

The current animal getting the most credit for becoming a whale is called Pakicetus and was a wolf-like animal of about that same size, 5 or 6 feet long. Their proof seems to be all wrapped up in the similarity between the teeth and ear bones of the two species.

Look at the two wolf-like animals at the top, Indohyus and Pakicetus. From those two it is a huge, huge leap to the new body plan of the third one down, Ambolucetus, which I’ll mention more in a minute.

The Smithsonian Institute has an article titled “How Did Whales Evolve?” which I thought might provide some good answers. [4] It’s a very long article and makes some sweeping claims about evolution. But, if you pay attention, you’ll see they have to admit that they still don’t have any ancestors of whales. The article takes a long time going into the history of fossil discoveries but never answers “How Did Whales Evolve?” which you would have expected from the title. At one point they tell the truth and then lie about what it means. "Though not a series of direct ancestors and descendants, each genus represents a particular stage of whale evolution. Together they illustrate how the entire transition took place." [5]

Sure, we know, “It might have happened.” That’s not science.

They even admit later that analysis of genes and amino acids refutes this ancestry line and indicates whales are related to hippos. The title and the article are pure propaganda.

Here is another example of an article that is even worse, "How Whales' Ancestors Left Land Behind" from This is their explanation for “How Whale’s Ancestors Left Land Behind.” What a joke!

"The 'first whale,' a creature whose lifestyle (living on land but eating fish from the nearby sea) represented the early stage of this transition into the water, was a wolf-size fish eater...Whereas this creature had a body clearly adapted for land, its relatives began acquiring features better suited to life in the water, such as webbed feet and a more streamlined, hairless shape." [6]

In their religious zeal for evolution, lots of imagination is allowed. Here is an example of the actual bones discover for the Pakicetus. In Part 1 of this picture you can see that fragments of a skull bone were discovered. Only the grayed areas of the skull and several teeth were actually discovered. In Part 2 is the somehow fully developed artist’s drawing of Pakicetus. You can see that he really looks like the ancestor of the whale as he plays in the water eating fish. But, the story is not over. As you can see in Part 3, more bones were discovered. The real bones forced the artists to come up with a totally new drawing, shown in Part 4.

The moral of this story is that you should always ask to see the actual bones that have been found and not the artist drawing. (See also Proof for God #64, Missing Links, the sections on hoaxes and “Lucy”.) [7]

So what do we really have?

Pakicetus (wolf-like) -> Missing Link -> Missing Link -> Missing Link -> Missing Link -> Missing Link -> Missing Link -> Whale. Just stop for a minute and think about the monumental indoctrination that has to be perpetrated for you to believe something like that. Where’s the proof? There is no fossil record that is even claimed to be a direct ancestor at any stage. There are just artist’s drawings.

Another animal often named as a side lineage of the ancestral lines of whales is called Ambulocetus. This is another case of evolutionist’s great imagination. Compare the actual fossil bones that were found to the artist’s drawing. Note that no pelvis bones were discovered so they could not be sure if it walked or swam.

In a lot of the drawings on whale evolution you will also see a Basilosaurus. But they often leave out the fact that it was 10 times bigger than Ambulocetus and “the serpentine form of the body and the peculiar shape of the cheek teeth make it plain that Basilosaurus could not possibly have been the ancestor of modern whales.” [8]

Here is another totally unscientific quote from American Museum of Natural History under the title of “Whale Evolution.” It is followed by a drawing like above.

"One group of hoofed mammals spent more and more time in the water, living on the abundant food there. Eventually they left land altogether—evolving into the fully aquatic whales. Take a look at a few of these early extinct whales below." [9]

As anyone can easily see, for a wolf-like animal to evolve into a whale, there have to be some tremendous, even unbelievable, changes. Let’s ask one of the obvious questions. Why? Evolutionists will say that Natural Selection chooses the fittest to survive. So a wolf, being a carnivore, is trying to catch fish. He would be better adapted if he had web feet, so he grew them. Then he would be better adapted if his tail grew and became useful for swimming and he developed bigger lungs to stay underwater longer.

Which wolf is more likely to survive in your opinion, a wolf that is trying to catch fish or a wolf that tries to catch a rabbit? Even a wolf that is half way to evolving webfeet is worse off at catching rabbits and only very slightly better at catching fish. Since evolution takes many generations, which wolf is going to survive?

No wolf if he gets really hungry trying to catch fish is going to evolve web feet. He is going to go catch a rabbit.

The same argument applies continuously. A wolf is so absolutely unfit for swimming and living in water that any wolf that tried it would die long before it could reproduce. The fittest to survive are clearly the other wolves out catching rabbits.

Now let me just share a few of the amazing characteristics of a whale. If you are an evolutionist, you would have to come up with some explanation for how each one of these features could evolve slowly and gradually through many generations. Nearly all of the intermediate stages in a slow process are poorly adapted for survival.

The Tail. For whales, this is their primary source of power for swimming. There are “flukes” on the end that go out sideways which add more driving force and maneuverability. A mammal tail swings mostly side to side, not up and down, and has very little of the strength needed for propulsion.

Skin. Mammals have hair and sweat glands. Whales do not. Whale skin has lots of extra fat or blubber.

Blubber. Whales have huge amounts of fat deposits called blubber, up to 11 inches thick. This serves as insulation in cold water and also protection for the very deep dives that they do.

Lungs. Whales have a huge lung capacity that allows them to stay underwater for long periods of time. They also can slow down their metabolism to increase their dive time. "...a humpback whale's lungs can hold about 5,000 liters of air." [10] By comparison, human lungs hold about 6 liters of air.

"Whales are adapted for diving to great depths. In addition to their streamlined bodies, they can slow their heart rate to conserve oxygen; blood is rerouted from tissue tolerant of water pressure to the heart and brain among other organs; haemoglobin and myoglobin store oxygen in body tissue; and they have twice the concentration of myoglobin than haemoglobin." [11]

Eyes. Whale eyes are specially adapted to be able to see in water which has a far higher refractive index than air. Their eyes also have to be able to withstand the tremendous pressure down deep in the ocean.

Sonar and Hearing. Many types of whales have sonar. This means they can make a sound which goes through the water and bounces back when it hits an object. They have the ability to receive the sound, send signals to their brains, and interpret what it means. It is similar to what bats can do, however they have to do it in water using the fatty lipids in their heads. This is very different from doing it in air. (See my Proof for God #42, Bats and Echolocation. [12])

"...they have teeth and only one blowhole. They rely on their well-developed sonar to find their way in the water. Toothed whales send out ultrasonic clicks using the melon. Sound waves travel through the water. Upon striking an object in the water, the sound waves bounce back at the whale. These vibrations are received through fatty tissues in the jaw, which is then rerouted into the ear-bone and into the brain where the vibrations are interpreted." [13]

Does there exist a good explanation about how this echolocation ability could arise slowly over many generations? All the parts have to be there from the beginning or the system doesn’t work.

"Instead of sound passing through the outer ear to the middle ear, whales receive sound through the throat, from which it passes through a low-impedance fat-filled cavity to the inner ear. The whale ear is acoustically isolated from the skull by air-filled sinus pockets, which allow for greater directional hearing underwater." [14]

So here is another dramatic change from a land animal. Whales have a very different process of hearing.

Blowholes. All known terrestrial mammals have nostrils on the front of their faces. Whales have either one or two blowholes in the top of their heads. Think about all the changes that would be required for your nostrils to migrate to the top of your head. It’s not just the hole in your skull that has to move, but all of the muscles, sensory nerves, air passages, nerve channels that connect to the brain, and probably a lot more. All have to change and change drastically. Not only that, your lungs have to change tremendously as well because you would need a gigantic lung capacity to stay underwater for a long time. Changing the size of your lungs requires changes in your ribs and spine and probably your heart and other internal organs.

Flippers. Clearly whales have fins on the sides instead of legs and feet going downward like mammals. How do legs turn into fins? The skin is different. The muscles are different and used differently. This requires rewiring to the brain as well.

Special Rib Cage. What about the bones? Changing from a wolf-like animal would require almost a complete makeover of the skeleton. The pelvis in land mammals cannot be found in whales. How does a transitional species with half a pelvis manage to either walk or swim well?

"These animals rely on their well-developed flippers and tail fin to propel themselves through the water; they swim by moving their fore-flippers and tail fin up and down. Whale ribs loosely articulate with their thoracic vertebrae at the proximal end, but do not form a rigid rib cage. This adaptation allows their chest to compress during deep dives as the pressure increases with depth." [15]

"Balaenids are the right whales. These animals have very large heads, which can make up as much as 40% of their body mass, and much of the head is the mouth. This allows them to take in large amounts of water into their mouths, letting them feed more effectively." [16]

Reproduction. Whales somehow have to do it all in the water. Like other mammals, males have a penis and females have a vagina. If they really evolved from wolves, then both the male and female would have to evolve their respective sexual parts at the same time and in the same vicinity in the ocean to each other so they could mate. There are videos on YouTube of whale sex. Somehow I have trouble imagining that could come about accidentally. And that’s not all the problems they need to solve in order to reproduce.

Here is a fun fact. The penis on the Blue Whale is about 8 to 10 feet long and weighs in at over 400 pounds.

"Since they are unable to go onto land to calve, they deliver the baby with the fetus positioned for tail-first delivery. This prevents the baby from drowning either upon or during delivery. (It will need air. JLS.) To feed the new-born, (mother) whales, being aquatic, must squirt the milk into the mouth of the calf. Being mammals, they, of course, have mammary glands used for nursing calves; they are weaned off at about 11 months of age. This milk contains high amounts of fat which is meant to hasten the development of blubber; it contains so much fat that it has the consistency of toothpaste." [17]

Baleen Whales. One of the types of whales has huge bristle-like walls in their mouth that act like sieves. Look at pictures of these whales and the structures in their mouth. Think about all the changes in their head size and shape, body, nervous system, eating habits, and much more that would have had to evolve separately over many generations. If their land-mammal ancestors were successful, why make all the minor changes that would be less advantageous to develop this.

"Baleen whales were named for the long plates of baleen which hang in a row (like the teeth of a comb) from their upper jaws. Baleen plates are strong and flexible; they are made of a protein similar to human fingernails. Baleen plates are broad at the base (gumline) and taper into a fringe which forms a curtain or mat inside the whale's mouth. Baleen whales strain huge volumes of ocean water through their baleen plates to capture food: tons of krill, other zooplankton, crustaceans, and small fish." [18]

Sleeping. Here is something you probably don’t know about whales. Try to imagine how this could have possibly evolved.

"Unlike most animals, whales are conscious breathers. All mammals sleep, but whales cannot afford to become unconscious for long because they may drown. While knowledge of sleep in wild cetaceans is limited, toothed cetaceans in captivity have been recorded to sleep with one side of their brain at a time, so that they may swim, breathe consciously, and avoid both predators and social contact during their period of rest." [19]

By the Theory of Evolution, every one of these adaptations would have had to evolve over many generations. So try to imagine having 5% of a tail, 10%, 20%, etc. Or how about evolving so half your brain can go to sleep while the other half stays awake. Think over all of the other amazing features listed above one by one. How can any one of these if only partially completed be selected for by Natural Selection? You’d have ridiculous looking deformed beasts that would die out in one generation because they are so poorly suited for the environment they are supposed to live in. Whales are an all or nothing proposition.

There has to be God.

[1] World Wide Life, “Whales”,

[2] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[3] Biowebpagevdl Wiki, "Whales Evolution",

[4] Switek, Brian,, "How Did Whales Evolve?", December 1, 2010,

[5] Switek, Brian,, "How Did Whales Evolve?", December 1, 2010,

[p6] Parry, Wynne,, "How Whales' Ancestors Left Land Behind",

[7] Stephens, Jim, “Proof for God #64, Missing Links”,

[8] Sarfati, Jonathan, "Refuting Evolution—Chapter 5",

[9] American Museum of Natural History, "Whale Evolution",

[10] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[11] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[12] Stephens, Jim, “Proof for God #42, Bats and Echolocation”,

[13] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[14] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[15] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[16] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[17] Wikipedia, "Whale",

[18] National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, "How were baleen whales named?",

[19] Wikipedia, "Whale",